The first 1.000 days of life, from gestation until 2 years of age, are a critical period, in which a large part of the brain's arquitecture is formed, as well as learning and linguistic abilities are developed. A number of studies show that poverty and the adverse events experienced from living in situations of instability and inequality over a period of weeks and months, produces toxic stress, affecting healthy brain development. This lack of development has negative effects in the long-term, carrying various adverse consequences in children from low socio-economic backgrounds:
1. A higher probability of recieving low grades in school
2. Lower results in standardized examinations and consequently;
3. More limited employment opportunities and lower salaries
Both toxic stress during pregnancy, as well as lack of early language stimulation, affect the development of robust cerebral pathways. This creates a deficit in linguistic, learning and attention capacity as well as behavioural problems across the lifespan.